**General
Relativity For Teletubbies**

**Sir Kevin Aylward B.Sc., Warden
of the King’s Ale**

**Space-Time
& Quantum Mechanics**

*“Paths in Space-Time are
Imaginary”*

__Back
to the __**Contents**__ section__

__Abstract__

*It is quite
clear that the Lorentz Transform Equations (LT) of Special Relativity (SR) form
an extremely accurate account of observations, and there is no intent here, to
cast any doubt as to the validity of the LT itself. However, it is argued here,
that the attribution of the SR axioms that there is a “space-time” that objects
“take a longer path in” in order to account for the observations that reunited,
previously synchronised clocks read different, is a tad dubious. Such a view, conflicts
with Quantum Mechanics. *

__SR Time__

SR simply defines time “as what a clock reads”, that is whatever its ticks are. Additionally, SR assumes, by the principle or Relativity, that clocks are uneffaced by any inertial motion. Thus forming a “Bible is the word of God, because it says so in the Bible that the Bible is the word of God” circular loop:

*“A clock always
reads the correct time, and time is what a clock reads”*

Whilst
from a simple experimental point of view, this is attractive, it ignores any
concept as to what time is or means physically. What the nature of time is,
matters, and it is this physical nature that, essentially, invalidates
explanations of clock readings by declaring that the clock took a “longer path
in space time”.

__Space-Time__

*“Rulers measure
space, not space-time”*

*“Clocks measure
time, not space-time”*

Special Relativity accounts for the processes associated with Time, by constructing a path (line) integral. It is a mathematical construction for the following form:

The arguments is that, just as odometers can read different from going from New York To L.A by taking different routes, clocks can read different from going from Monday to Friday by taking different routes. The integral, just expresses the “path” that the clock takes.

However,
the issue for this interpretation is that there is a requirement that a
construction of what time actually is, *independent
of clocks*, otherwise, the phrase is simply word salad physically.

For
the case of distance travelled, there are objects spread about, such that an
odometer can go from point A to point B, via different routes such that the
odometers can *cover more space*.

For
the case of time, the only rational analogy to “covers more space” is “covers
more time”, that is, there is a construct for “time” such that clocks can cover
more of it. For example, one can “travel” from Monday to Friday at 1 sec/sec or
“travel” from Monday to Friday at say 100 secs/sec. That is, *one gets to the future*, quicker, thus
experiencing less of one’s own time when experiencing the events of another’s
time. This is, essentially, Dr. Who & his TARDIS time travel. That is, *clocks always tick the same rate according
to SR*, but they cover more of this construct named “time” (space-time) to
generate a lessor count of clock ticks than other observers would count on their own clocks.

This
last point does not seem to be appreciated by some. There is a clear disjoint
between the words “longer path in space-time” from what it must mean in
reality. It is at the level of denial, for some. It is this inherent “time
travel” implication of the “longer path in space-time” mode, which undermines the
concept that such a notion accounts for clocks reading slow on reunion.** **

__Real Time__

A
physical construct of what time measures, independent of clocks, is straight
forward. It may be argued that a point in Time is simply the *physical Event* status of the system, for
example, the Event state of the universe at that point. That is:

Where
** n**,
refers to each state of all the objects

Thus, when any single object changes its state, the state of the universe has changed, and thus so has time. If nothing changes, no clocks can change, hence time has stopped.

Thus
in some manner, clock ticks are identifying when the state of the system has progressed
from one state, E_{n}… to the next state E_{n+1}.** **

__Longer Path in
Space-Time__

As noted, a “longer path in space-time” must mean that the objects traveling must cover “more of” a something named “time”. From the Observer’s (static) point of view, a “longer path in pace-time” means that the Observed (moving) clock is counting more states of the Observer Events, that is counting more Observer Events than that which the Observer clock counts its own states of its Events. For example:

Consider
the Observed, in orbit around planet Earth. The Earth Observer will experience
Events, say, E_{n, }E_{n+1, }E_{n+2
……}E_{n+8}. However, for
the Observer to also conclude that the orbiting clock is taking “longer path in
space-time” the Observe must conclude that the Observed has counted more states,
say E_{n, }E_{n+1, }E_{n+2 ……}E_{n+16}. That is, the Observed must be counting (observing)
states that the Observer has yet to generate. That is, the Observer must
conclude that *the Observed is counting
states of the Observer’s future*, states that don’t yet exist for the
Observer.

This is most peculiar indeed.

Thus
the conclusion, as many others have written much on, is *that all futures of the universe already exist for some particular
Observed*. This is referred to as the “block universe”

A
fundamental issue with this conclusion is that it is in direct conflict with
Quantum Mechanics. Standard Quantum Mechanics states that the universe is
inherently probabilistic. It states that there is no system Event E_{n}
such that the state E_{n+1} can be ascertained with certainty, thus
there is no way, according to QM, that the Observed is able to gain knowledge
of the future state of the Observer state. Thus the interpretation of “longer
path in space-time” is in conflict with QM. Strict determinism also has severe
problems is accounting for the ability for the conditions of this universe to
be such that we can exist.

Either Standard Quantum Mechanics is false, or the interpretations of the axioms of Special Relativity are false.

__The Alternative__

The
alternative, is to *simply take on face
value the actual experimental results of reunited clocks after one clock has
been subjected to a velocity profile*. That is, clocks and all physical
processes do actually slow down when subject to a velocity profile with respect
to another observer. One might note that it is somewhat ironic that the
overwhelming common media description of Special Relativity that clocks
slowdown, which is considered a false claim according to SR, is that that may
well be the correct reality of the situation.

This is, arguably, the viewpoint expressed in Lee Smolin’s “Time Reborn” although stated with reference to the concept of “Shape Dynamics”.

The essential point being that Shape Dynamics essentially, swaps over the invariant space of GR with its variant time, to variant space with invariant time. It’s essentially an expanded Lorentz contraction view of a velocity unobservable background Aether in hiding.

It’s similar in idea to the equivalence of the Schrodinger Picture and the Heisenberg Picture of Quant Mechanics which swaps where time variance is accounted for from components to the basis vectors.

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